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First Nations, Métis and Inuit Peoples

On this page you will find a list of websites that provide information by, for or about First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples in Canada. If you are looking for information about organizations in Winnipeg that serve First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples visit our Aboriginal Services page.
bullet_blue.gif  General Resources bullet_blue.gif  Portal Sites and Directories
bullet_blue.gif  Political/ Advocacy Organizations bullet_blue.gif  Treaties
bullet_blue.gif  Women bullet_blue.gif  Justice
bullet_blue.gif  Media bullet_blue.gif  Statistics
bullet_blue.gif  Languages bullet_blue.gif  Policies and Policy Studies
bullet_blue.gif  Health bullet_blue.gif  Theatre and Film
bullet_blue.gif  Business and Commerce    
bullet_blue.gif  Writers and Literature

General Resources

This section lists websites or reports that provide information about many different issues or groups, or about Aboriginal peoples in Canada as a whole.

The 8th Fire
This is the companion website to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation documentary series The 8th Fire which aired early in 2012. The site contains many videos covering stories and issues beyond the series, as well as videos of extended interviews which did not air on television. The site also provides profiles of Aboriginal filmmakers, maps of current and historic Aboriginal land use and an "Aboriginal 101" section with basic information about Aboriginal peoples, as well as information to dispel stereotypes.

Canadian Journal of Native Studies
Produced out of the University of Brandon this journal provides academic articles about a wide range of topics related to First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples. The site provides links to the full text of articles from 1981 - 2009.

First Nations Profiles, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada
The First Nation Profiles is a collection of information that describes individual First Nation communities across Canada. The profiles include general information on a First Nation along with more detailed information about its reserve(s), governance, federal funding, geography, registered population statistics and various Census statistics.
This interactive multimedia site provides traditional Teachings from Blackfoot, Cree, Ojibwe, Mohawk and Mi'kmaq perspectives. The site is based on knowledge provided by a committee of Elders. The site also provides free curriculum materials for grades 1-12.

Royal Commission Report on Aboriginal Peoples
This site contains documents related to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, a nation-wide consultation and study conducted in the 1990s (the Report was published in 1996). The Report included many recommendations for improving the lives of Aboriginal peoples living in Canada.

Portal Sites and Directories

This section lists websites that either link to many other sites or that provide lists of resources for further research.
This site provides access to over 2,000 international websites with information about or for Indigenous populations are the world. There is a "Canada" section with links to over 900 sites about a range of topics.

Aboriginal Resources and Services, Library and Archives Canada
This site will guide you to wide-ranging collections, online exhibitions and resource lists about and for Aboriginal peoples. You will information about current books and authors, links to the historical reports of Indian Affairs departments, family history search information, residential schools materials and more.

Canadian Directory of First Nations, Métis and Inuit Library Collections
This directory provides a list of libraries and cultural centres that provide First Nations, Métis and/or Inuit collections and services. It provides basic information about each organization. It is not clear when the list was last updated, but it remains a good starting point for finding out about these types of organizations.

iPortal – Indigenous Studies Portal Research Tool
Produced by the University of Saskatchewan Libraries, this site is an excellent place to begin researching many topics related to First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples in Canada, as well as other Indigenous groups. Topics include Land Claims, Language, Decolonization and Science and Technology - to name just a few. As of January, 2011 the portal contained over 25,000 records for books, articles, theses, documents, photographs, archival resources, maps and more. Many of the records contain links to the full-text of the material catalogued.

Library and Archives Canada – Aboriginal Heritage
Library and Archives Canada's Aboriginal heritage information and research tool. This site provides access to their collection of historical images of Metis, First Nations and Inuit people.

Political/ Advocacy

This section lists both national and Manitoba-based organizations.

Assembly of First Nations - Assemblée des Premiè res Nations
National. The Assembly of First Nations is the national organization representing First Nations citizens in Canada.

Congress of Aboriginal Peoples
National. The Congress of Aboriginal People represents the rights and interests of Status and non-Status Indians living off-reserve and Métis people in Canada.

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami
National. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami is the national Inuit organization in Canada, representing four Inuit regions - Nunatsiavut (Labrador), Nunavik (northern Quebec), Nunavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region in the Northwest Territories.

Métis National Council
National. The MNC is an organization that represents Métis Nation nationally and internationally. It receives its mandate and direction from the democratically elected leadership of the Métis Nation's governments from Ontario westward.

Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs
Manitoba. The Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs was created in 1988 by First Nations in Manitoba to coordinate political action and technical work on common issues.

Manitoba Keewatinowi Okimakanak
Manitoba. MKO is a non-profit, political advocacy organization that provides a collective voice on issues of inherent, Treaty, Aboriginal and human rights for the citizens of 30 sovereign First Nations, signatory to Treaties 4, 5, 6 and 10.

Manitoba Métis Federation
Manitoba. The Manitoba Métis Federation is the official democratic and self-governing political representative for the Métis people of Manitoba.

Southern Chiefs Organization Inc.
Manitoba. Umbrella organization for a number of First Nations communities focused on the protection of inherent rights, including treaty rights.


This section lists websites with information about treaties across Canada, as well as organizations that do work regarding treaties specific to lands in Manitoba.

The Atlas of Canada - Historical Indian Treaties
Canada. This Government of Canada site provides a timeline with maps of major treaties in North America/Canada from 1725 to 1930. Each map includes background information about the treaty whose area is shown.

Canada in the Making - Aboriginals: Treaties & Relations
Canada. This site provides many encyclopedia-type articles about Aboriginal-European relationships and treaty-making in North America and Canada, beginning in 1492. Information about the Peace and Friendship Treaties, the numbered treaties, the Aboriginal rights movement and constitutional reform in the 2000s is included.

Historic Treaties, Aboriginal Affairs and North Development Canada
Canada. This Government of Canada site provides information about more than 70 historical treaties negotiated with First Nations between 1701 and 1923, including original texts, archival images of signing ceremonies, a timeline of treaty-making in Canada, and guides to specific treaties.

Treaty Guides, Aboriginal Affairs and North Development Canada
Canada. This page provides an easy to understand summary of treaties going back to the 1700s. You will also find links to the full text of treaties as well as maps and other related documents.

Treaty Land Entitlement Committee of Manitoba Inc.
The Treaty Land Entitlement Committee of Manitoba represents Manitoba First Nations who have signed the Manitoba Treaty Land Entitlement Framework Agreement (1997) to settle treaty-based debts owed by the Government of Canada.

Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba
The Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba is a neutral body with a mandate to strengthen, rebuild and enhance the treaty relationship with mutual respect between First Nations and Manitobans.


Aboriginal Women's Professional Association
The Aboriginal Women's Professional Association is a network of professional Aboriginal women who are business owners, managers, program coordinators, public employees, entrepreneurs, facilitators, and students.

Institute for the Advancement of Aboriginal Women
The Institute for the Advancement of Aboriginal Women is an Alberta-based non-profit centre that focuses on educational and other services to promote the well-being of Aboriginal women.

Missing Persons and Persons at Risk Tool Kit, Ka Ni Kanichihk
This page provides a tool kit of documents, templates, useful contacts and advice for families/friends that have had a loved one go missing. There are poster templates to download, information about spreading the word on social media sites and contact information for agencies that can assist. The toolkit was produced through the support of Ka Ni Kanichihk in Winnipeg.

Missing Sisters Crowdmap
This is a site mapping the missing or unsolved murders of indigenous woman in North America. Visitors to the site can also submit a report.

Native Women's Association of Canada
Founded in 1974 the Native Women's Association of Canada is a national organization representing the interest of First Nations and Métis women, in particular.

Pauktuutit – Inuit Women of Canada
Pauktuutit is a national organization that advocates for the interests of Inuit women with a focus on “community, regional and national concerns in relation to social, cultural and economic development.” This site has information about abuse prevention, health and social and economic development. The “Resources” section offers downloadable reports and other documents about a wide range of topics, from resource extraction and residential schools to family violence and maternal health.

Sisters in Spirit, Native Women's Association of Canada
Sisters in Spirit was a research and education project begun in 2005 and focused on raising awareness about missing and murdered Aboriginal women in Canada. The project produced a database of more than 580 missing women, as well as a major report in 2009.


Report of the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry of Manitoba
The Aboriginal Justice Inquiry was commissioned in 1988 with the purpose of examining the relationship between Aboriginal peoples of Manitoba and the justice system. The final report states that the justice system has "failed Aboriginal peoples on massive scale". Aboriginal peoples are not being well served by the current justice system and the report puts forward many recommendations for changes.


This section lists both national media sources and those providing service to people in Manitoba, specifically.

Aboriginal Multi-Media Society
National. The Society publishes several Aboriginal newspapers, including Windspeaker. This site gathers articles from all AMMSA publications and classroom editions (for instructional use).

Aboriginal Peoples Television Network
National. This Winnipeg-based, nation-wide broadcaster produces and shows documentaries, news, drama, children's entertainment, cooking shows and other educational programming. Their website provides program schedules, video, live-streaming news and a subscription service for updates and contests.

CBC Aboriginal
National. This is the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's site for news about Aboriginal peoples and issues includes current events news, arts & culture, a photo gallery and an extensive digital archive as well as profiles of Aboriginal reporters and producers working for the CBC.

IsumaTV is a network of Inuit and Indigenous multimedia. There are thousands of free videos and films in over 50 languages created by people all around the world as well as join and participate in the online community.

Media Indigena
National. Media Indigena is a web-based news and information site that describes itself as "an interactive, multimedia magazine dedicated to Indigenous news, views and creative expression." The site provides information and commentary about a range of topics - from art to politics, business and the economy to lifestyle.

Nation Talk
National. A newswire and employment listing service.

First Nations Voice
Manitoba. First Nations Voice describes itself as a "non political, privately owned First Nation News Paper." It is based in Manitoba and covers national and local news stories. Distribution and printing are supported by the Winnipeg Free Press.

The First Perspective - The Drum
Manitoba. Focuses on news stories from Manitoba and Northwestern Ontario.

Manitoba. Native Communications Incorporated is a Winnipeg-based Aboriginal public radio broadcaster serving Manitoba. Its website includes streaming audio, a program guide, the "Red Pages" searchable directory of Aboriginal service organizations, and more.

Streetz 104.7 FM
Manitoba. A Winnipeg-based hip hop radio station targeted to Aboriginal youth. The site includes the station's schedule, dj profiles, local event listings, and "411" - a list of funding, employment and social support services in Winnipeg.


This section provides links to statistical information gathered about First Nation, Métis and Inuit peoples. You will find statistics about a wide range of topics – from basic population data, to education, health and more.

Aboriginal Peoples, Statistics Canada
This is the Statistics Canada site will guide you to a wide range of statistical information regarding First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples. There is information about population counts, health, education, justice and more.

City of Winnipeg Neighbourhood Profiles
This page provides data about neighbourhoods in Winnipeg. The data is taken from the 2006 census and includes information about the numbers of First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples, as well as the number of people speaking specific First Nations, Métis or Inuit languages. You can find information either by clicking on the map or using the menu at the top of the page.

First Nations Information Governance Centre
The First Nations Information Governance Centre is an organization created to serve as a steward for First Nations-based information and data. It is also the home organization of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (see our separate entry for information on the Survey). The FNIGC is headquartered in Ottawa with regional centres around the country. In collecting and supporting the collection of information about First Nations peoples the FNIGC is guided by the principles OCAP™ (Ownership, Control, Access and Possession).

First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey
This health survey, also known as the RHS, is “a national health survey that is fully directed and controlled by First Nations.” It is longitudinal, meaning that information is gathered and compared over long periods of time. The RHS conducted its first (pilot) survey in 1997 with 2 more survey phases conducted in 2002/2003 and 2007/2008. This site provides information about who governs the RHS, its cultural framework, its regional partners, as well many reports (2002/2003) based on the survey information.

Métis Centre, National Aboriginal Health Organization
This site provides access to both statistical information about Métis health topics and to a wide range of articles.

Naasautit: Inuit Health Statistics
Nassautit is a project of the Quajisarvingat Inuit Knowledge Centre (part of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami – see our separate entry on this page). Nassuatit was developed to present statistical information about Inuit health in an accessible way. A holistic approach to health information is presented, with topics ranging from food security and housing to traditional medicines and mainstream health services. The site creates easy-to-read graphs when you select the type of information you are interested in from lists provided.


This section provides a list of general resources about Aboriginal languages in Manitoba, as well as a list of websites that have different options for helping to learn one of the following languages: Cree, Dakota, Dene, Inuktitut, Michif, Oji-Cree and Ojibwe (many different dialects are represented).

There are work sheets, dictionaries to translate from English to another language, keyboard fonts to download, sound files to help with pronunciation, videos and more. Explore each site to find the resources that suit you best.

Aboriginal Languages, Government of Manitoba
General Language Resource. This site links to Manitoba school curriculum documents about Aboriginal cultures and languages, as well as lists of Aboriginal language resources. There is also a map showing where the different Aboriginal languages are spoken in Manitoba.

Languages of Canada, Wikipedia
General Language Resource. This page includes a list of "Indigenous Languages" in Canada; click on the language or group you want to learn more about. Many Aboriginal language pages on Wikipedia are very well developed with a lot of good information, however, it's always best to check information on Wikipedia against other online sources or materials available at the Library.

The Aboriginal Languages Recognition Act, Province of Manitoba
General Language Resource. Text of a Government of Manitoba act recognizing the seven Aboriginal languages spoken in Manitoba (Cree, Dakota, Dene, Inuktitut, Michif, Ojibway and Oji-Cree) and encouraging their preservation.

Cree Syllabary
Cree. From Omniglot, an online encyclopedia of world languages.

The Gift of Language and Culture
Cree, Dene. A language site developed by the Lac La Ronge Indian Band.

Dakota Language and Culture
Dakota. From the Native American Women's Health Education Resource Centre (South Dakota).

The Dakota Language Homepage
Dakota. From Native Language Systems.

FirstVoices: Dene Community Portal
Dene. From the First Peoples' Cultural Foundation.

Tusaalanga Inuktitut
Inuktitut. From the Piruvik Centre (Iqaluit, Nunavut).

Introduction to Michif Language Lessons
This is an introduction to the Michif language designed by a local Metis woman. The lessons focus on basic conversation and is relevant for those who would like to start learning the language.

Learn Michif
Michif. From the Métis Nation British Columbia and the Métis Youth British Columbia.

Speaking Michif - language lessons
Michif. From the Louis Riel Institute.

Keewaytinook Okimakanak: Native Language
Oji-Cree. From the Keewaytinook Okimakanak Chief Council (Ontario).

Ojibwe. From the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians (Michigan).
An Ojibwe language app for smart phone from Wabanakwut Kinew, Winnipeg TV/radio broadcaster & musical performer.

The Ojibwe People's Dictionary
From the University of Minnesota. Searches more than 30, 000 words for the dialect of Ojibwe spoken in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Canadian-border lakes communities.

Noongwa e-Anishinaabemjig: People Who Speak Anishinaabemowin Today
Ojibwe. From the University of Michigan.

Residential Schools

In our collection: the Library has many books and some documentaries about residential schools. You will find materials for adult, teens and children. Download this list to help you start your search for materials.

Aboriginal Healing Foundation

The stated mission of the Aboriginal Healing Foundation is to "provide resources which will promote reconciliation and encourage and support Aboriginal people and their communities in building and reinforcing sustainable healing processes."

CBC Digital Archives
This search of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's digital archives provides both television and radio clips of CBC stories related to residential schools. Included are historical images, interviews with Aboriginal leaders and the Government of Canada's apology.

Digital Stories Project
A project created by 6 First Nations women on the intergenerational effects of residential schools.

Indian Residential Schools Resolution Health Support Program
The Indian Residential Schools Resolution Health Support Program provides mental health and emotional support services to eligible former Indian Residential School students and their families throughout all phases of the Indian Residential School Settlement Agreement.

Indian Residential Schools Settlement - Official Court Website

Legacy of Hope Foundation
The Legacy of Hope Foundation stated focus is on "the development and implementation of programming that educates Canadians about the legacy of residential schools and that also supports the ongoing healing process of Survivors."

National Residential School Survivors' Society
The National Residential School Survivors' Society has a mandate to be a national voice for residential school survivors and their families, including providing information to survivors, offering networking opportunities for survivors and to advise and lobby government.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada
This is the site of the official body established as part of Canada's Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement to document the residential school experience and provide a forum for expression and healing.


For more health-related information go to the Statistics section of this page.

Aboriginal Health: University of Manitoba Libraries
This site provides links to information about many topics related to Aboriginal peoples' health, including: cross-cultural care, research ethics, traditional foods and nutrition, Traditional Medicine and the Medicine Wheel and treaties and the treaty right to health. One highlight is the Canadian Nutrient File site that can be used to find out nutritional information about store-bought and traditional foods (approximately 150 different traditional foods are included).

Canadian Aboriginal Aids Network
This site provides many different kinds of information related to Aboriginal peoples and AIDS, including research reports and statistics and fact sheets, guides and brochures to help with public education. There is specific information targeted to women and youth.

First Nations and Inuit Health, Health Canada
This is Health Canada’s main site for all of its First Nations and Inuit Health programs. You will find information specific to health (for example about certain diseases and conditions) as well as information about how to access Health Canada-supported benefits and other services.

Guide to Health and Social Services for Aboriginal People in Manitoba
This is a link to a document which provides a comprehensive list of health and social services available for Aboriginal People in Manitoba from the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority Aboriginal Health Services department.

The Meeka Project
The Meeka Project is a set of illustrated culturally relevant wellness resources that take a holistic approach to Inuit healing and healthy living using traditional stories. Available in English and Inuktitut.

National Aboriginal Diabetes Association
Based in Winnipeg, and dating back to 1995, the National Aboriginal Diabetes Association focuses on raising awareness about diabetes, advocating for programs and services for Aboriginal peoples living with the disease and promoting healthy lifestyles. Their site provides information about Type 2 diabetes, including signs and symptoms, prevention and complications. The site also provides links to associations across Canada that do work focused on Aboriginal peoples and diabetes, as well as to mainstream diabetes organizations. You will also find public education materials like fact sheets and guides.

National Aboriginal Health Organization
The National Aboriginal Health Organization stopped operating in June, 2012. Its website and electronic resources are to remain posted until 2017. The site features reports, statistical information and videos about many aspects of First Nations, Métis and Inuit health (physical, mental, spiritual, social determinates of health, etc.).

National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health
Based out of the University of Northern British Columbia this Centre is one of the Public Health Agency of Canada’s "National Collaborating Centres" (the others address health topics that are not Aboriginal-specific). The Centre "focuses on the health of a population and addresses health inequities experienced by Canada's First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples" and its site provides links to many publications and videos with a focus on children and youth and social determinates of health.

Native Youth Sexual Health Network
The Native Youth Sexual Health Network is an organization by and for Indigenous youth that works across issues of sexual and reproductive health, rights and justice throughout the United States and Canada.

Policies and Policy Studies

Aboriginal Policy Studies
Aboriginal Policy Studies is a Canadian open access electronic journal established in 2011 that publishes new content several times per year. Contributions from scholars, community activists, researches and policymakers are published and cover a range of policy issues.

White Paper, 1969
This page contains the full text of the Government of Canada's 1969 White Paper, produced at a time when future Prime Minister Jean Chretien was Minister of Indian Affairs. The White Paper was a policy document that recommended the abolition of the Indian Act and the general assimilation of Aboriginal peoples with the larger Canadian population.

Citizens Plus - "The Red Paper", 1970
This page contains the full text of Citizens Plus the response and critique of the Government of Canada's White Paper written by the Indian Chiefs of Alberta.

Business and Commerce

Aboriginal Business Links, Government of Manitoba
This site provides a good list of local (Manitoba) and national organizations that provide support for Aboriginal businesses.

Theatre and Film

For information about Aboriginal theatre or film program in Manitoba, visit our list of local organizations here.

"Aboriginal Theatre," Canadian Theatre Encyclopedia
This article provides a history of Aboriginal theatre in Canada and information about Aboriginal playwrights and theatre companies. The Canadian Theatre Encyclopedia also has articles about several of the playwrights named in the article.

National Film Board - Aboriginal Peoples channel
Watch films online for free.

imagineNATIVE Film + Media Arts Festival

Centre for Indigenous Theatre

De-ba-jeh-mu-jig Theatre Group
Wikwemikong and Manitowaning, (Manitoulin) Ontario.

Native Earth Theatre Company

Theatre centre in Montréal.

Red Sky Performance Ensemble

Saskatchewan Native Theatre Company

Urban Ink
Theatre centre in Vancouver.

Writers and Literature

Aboriginal Literatures in Canada. A Teacher Resources Guide
Curriculum Services Foundation Canada. This document provides information about literature from the following cultural groups: Mi'kmaq, Mohawk (Six Nations), Anishnabe (Ojibway), Cree, Métis and Okanagan. You will find extensive resource lists and information about well-known Aboriginal writers.

Finding Out About Native Canadian Women Writers Published in English
Library and Archives Canada. This site provides an extensive list of works by Aboriginal women writers, as well as a list of names of writers.

Native American Authors list
Internet Public Library. This page provides an extensive list of Indigenous authors from Canada and the United States.

Last update: Monday, June 15, 2015

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